Concrete is an artificial stone that is obtained by hardening a mixture of binder, water and aggregate. The properties of the maturing concrete depend on where and for what the concrete mix is used. On the basis of this is calculated the concrete strength class, suitable aggregates are selected and, if necessary, frost resistance, water tightness, etc., is indicated.

On hardening of the concrete, cement hydration takes place, resulting in the emergence of a solid artificial stone. The reaction is exothermic, i.e., heat is released during the process. During the hardening, processes take place with the concrete mix; the concrete mix solidifies, congeals and hardens.

The concrete mix is usually manufactured from a cement binder (such as Portland cement or oil shale cement) and with normal dense aggregates, such as crushed stone or gravel, sand and water.